Online Encyclopedia of Silver Marks, Hallmarks & Maker's Marks

HALLMARKS OF OTHER COUNTRIES

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A small sampling that may help to identify the country of origin.

Austria-Hungary
Left ~ 18th Cent. The 13 indicates silver purity, 13/16 lothig or .813, year 1753
Right ~ 19th Cent. until 1886. The letter at top indicates town, A = Vienna, year 1857

Austria-Hungary
Top ~ 1886 - 1922. Diana head mark, number at left indicates silver purity, 3 =.800. Letter on right indicates city, P = Pest.
Austria
middle ~ 1922 - Present. Toucan head, letter on left indicates city, W= Vienna. Silver purity marked separately by #4 = .750

bottom ~ 1922 - Present. Hoopoe head, letter on right indicates city, W= Vienna. Silver purity marked separately by #3 = .835, #2 = .900, #1 = .935, the stamp shape containing the bird's head changes with the purity number.

China
Late 19th & Early 20th centuries.

Czech Republic
Marks in current use.

Denmark
1888 - Present
Top ~ Silver must be marked with a maker's mark and fineness in thousandths (top).
Bottom ~ It may also be marked with the Copenhagen assay mark (3 towers above date) and
with the Assayer's initials (ill. example - C.F. Heise)
Danish Maker's Marks

Egypt
1906 - Present
The Cat figure was replaced by the Lotus Flower in 1946

Finland
1810 - Present
Left to right ~ Maker's Mark, National Mark, silver purity, Town Mark (Turku) and Date Mark
Key to Finland Date Marks

France
Silverplate marks
Maker's mark in a rectangle as opposed to the diamond shape used on silver. Numeral indicates silverplate thickness.
French Silver & Gold Marks

Germany
1884 - Present?
The crown & crescent are the state mark and are followed by a numeric standard mark and usually a maker's mark (symbol, initials or full name). Prior to 1884, instead of the crown & crescent, each city had its own symbol and silver purity was sometimes marked on the lothige system with a number 12 or more commonly 13.
More German Marks


Iceland
Standard mark and maker's mark, sometimes "Made in Iceland"
Site for Icelandic Maker's Marks


Iran
20th Cent.


Ireland
c.1730 to Present
Example has the (harp) town mark for Dublin.
Dublin Date Marks

Italy

1 ~ From 1872 - rarely used (an .800 stamp is more common)
2 ~ Fascist period 1934 - 1944
3 ~ 1944 to 1968
4 ~ 1968 to Present
In the last three examples, the number would be registered to an individual maker, the initials represent the region (ie. FI = Firenze)
For a fuller overview of 20th Century Italian marks, visit ASCAS

Latvia
20th Cent.
Silver purity in thousandths (.875 or .916) plus initialed Maker's Mark.
Top~ Local production
Bottom ~ Imported ware.

Malta
Current Maltese Assay Marks

Mexico
19th Cent.
20th Century Mexican Marks

Netherlands
1814 - 1953
Lion mark is silver purity (1 =.934, 2 =. 833), Head is duty mark, Letter is date mark (x = 1932). Maker's Mark (far left) for Zilverfabriek Voorschoten.
Key to Dutch Silver Date Marks


Norway
19th & 20th Cent.
Silver standard and maker's mark. Assay optional.
Norwegian Silver Marks

Poland
Top ~ since 1920
Number indicates silver purity (3 =.800). Letter indicates city of assay (w = Warsaw). Later examples show head above purity number and city initial on kerchief.
Bottom ~ Marks in current use.

Portugal
1886 - 1938
Mark used on large articles. A seated boar was also used.

Russia
Top ~ c.1750 - 1896
Left to right ~ Maker's Mark, Assayer's Mark above year, silver purity and Town Mark (St. Petersburg)
Bottom left ~ 1896 - 1908, Assayer's initials to right of head also indicate town.
Bottom right ~ 1908 - 1917, Symbol to left of head indicates town.

Scotland
18th cent.- present
This example has the town mark of Edinburgh.

Spain
1934 - Present
Pentagram is a quality mark indicating a minimum of .915 purity, it is usually accompanied by a
maker's mark in a hexagonal stamp or an importer's mark in a triangle.


Sweden
1912 - Present
Marks used from mid 18th Cent.- 1912 are very similar.
Key to Swedish Date Marks

Switzerland
Top: 1882 - 1934
Bear - .875 and above. Grouse - .800
Bottom: 1934 - Present?
Duck - .925 Grouse - .800
Hallmarks compulsory for watch cases,
optional on all other silverware.

Turkey ~ Ottoman Empire
? - 1923


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